Recent developments in nanotechnologies involve novel challenges for the quantitative characterization (metrology) of surface structures. Methods that are well established for microstructures can only to a limited extent be applied in the nanometer range.
In addition to atomic force microscopy (AFM), which provides high vertical and lateral resolution but is limited to surface areas of up to 100 x 100 µm², a variety of other techniques is used that cover larger areas and can be ideally combined with AFM. These are in particular light scattering measurements, White Light Interferometry (WLI), and Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy (LSM). The use of Power Spectral Density functions (PSDs) enables all these methods to be combined.