Direct writing of waveguides in glass and crystals

The direct writing of waveguide structures in transparent materials with the use of ultrashort laser pulses is a new technology for producing integrated optical elements.


Benefits of the technology

  • Effective light conduction with local refractive index increase
  • Generation of extended waveguides
  • Production of planar and extended 3D arrays of waveguides with all topologies
  • Increase in packing density of optical functions
  • Efficient wavelength conversion in non-linear crystals



Waveguides realized in femtosecond direct writing processes are particularly suitable for manipulating the propagation behaviour of light.

With tightly written waveguides, the waveguide couples precisely and the light propagation can be discretized. The resulting effects are negative diffraction, self-collimation or self-projection.