In 2-photon polymerization, the polymerization process is initiated by the non-linear absorption of 2-photons. In this way, the polymerization can be limited to the focus range and achieve a three-dimensional localization (analogous with 2-photon microscopy).
The realization of macroscopic structures with the highest resolution requires the use of adapted polymers, special beam control systems and optics. Using the developed hybrid optics, structures below the diffraction limit can be synthesized across the entire working distance of the optics.
With pattern sizes to below 100 nm, complex waveguide structures or photonic crystals can be realized.